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Causes and Effects of Divorce - Essay Example Most of the marriage counselors highlight excessive intolerance, high temperaments, and poor communication to be the major causes of a failed marriage which are discussed in this paper along with the broad range of socioeconomic and psychological effects produced on both men and women by a failed marriage. Research done on poorly working marital relationships between husbands and wives presents the fact that women are emotionally much better groomed than men and they think that emotional handling is hugely important for appropriate maintenance of the marriage. They like to talk things over with their husbands and naturally demand suitable responses from them as well. On the other hand, most of the husbands are found completely oblivious to the difference in the emotional realities existing between men and women. Though, they do communicate with their wives at the beginning of the marriage as a way of maintaining a sense of closeness with their wives, they become less and less communicative with the passing time due to which the wives helplessly develop an inner void that is completely inescapable. The growing silence on the part of husbands also leads the wives to develop fake illusions like they may have lost charm due to which their men no more find them attractive and worth talking-to. Obviously, women squabble about the state of their marriages much passionately than men so and as they are more vocal about various problems which they encounter, the reduced responsiveness of their men proves to be an infuriating culprit which causes divorce. Incompatibility between partners, in terms of emotional and intellectual grooming, is also a major cause of divorce. Abusive relationship between husband and wife also leads them to destroy each otherâ€™s mental well being which leads them to initiate divorce settlement. (Rowd).
Many companies experienced the impact of new technologies in the 1980s and early 1990s. It has recently been realized that the technologies are converging, raising more primary skill and resourcing. Technology while still de-skill a large number of jobs. The emphasis has shifted from people with technical staff to use sophisticated computer technology and display high levels of customer service (Nuseibe, 2010). The main purpose of this research is to facilitate customer orders online selection, online bill payments and facilitate customers by offering fast order delivery. All data management due to centralized data effectively.The system will provide quick access in an easy to obtain the necessary information about the current state of the restaurant. The state will tell you about different deals offered by the restaurant. Different types of data are provided by the generation of reports that help in making decisions on the basis of these reports. Objective The main objective of developing the proposed system is to facilitate the customer by the easy accessibility and convenience, the user interface will so easy to use that customers can place orders, and can go through hotel information online 24 / 7.Review of Literature Al-Ahmad (2006) recognized that Object-Oriented Pprogramming (OOP) can be explained as a model for building software. In OOP, a program execution is considered a physical model, simulating either a real or imaginary part of the world. In OOP, concepts in the classification (things, behavior, relationships, etc. ) and real phenomena (special cases of aircraft, flight, security stocks, etc. ) are represented as classes and objects, respectively, in the model of computer system.In OOP, key concepts are modeled as classes that are ordered hierarchically so that a new class (subclass) is generally defined based on a given class (super class) using inheritance. Dhamayanthi and Thangavel (2006) adopted the framework. NET is a set of products for the development and management of systems with tiered architectures and object oriented. A framework generally include several design patterns is too . NET, The Assist patterns composing the frame architecture suitable for many different applications without redesign. An additional advantage is that the framework recognizes the design pattern you use.This paper is intended to present . NET versions for selected structural patterns. With the seven structural patterns discussed by Gang of Four (GOF), five are discover with the help of . NET framework. Gogolla et al. (2007) stated that Unified Modeling Language (UML) It provides significant today as a standard for software development. UML tools however provide light support for model validation and inspection in the early stages of development. Nor is there significant support for the Object Constraint Language (OCL). We present an approach for the support of UML models and OCL constraints based on animation and documentation.The purpose tool (UML-based environment under) supports analysts, designers and developers in executing UML models and OCL constraints examination and therefore allows them to employ model-based techniques for software decision. Thomas et al. (2008) said the structured query language (SQL) is a language used with interactive usual relational databases. A SQL statement is a unit of execution that returns a single result set from a database. An exhibition is the result of a software glitch that gives an attacker access to a computer system involuntary.SQLIV allow entry attacker to modify SQL structure via a SQL injection attack (SQLIA), which changes the logic of the SQL statement. An attack is a sequence of actions that exploit the vulnerability, often with devastating consequences. A SQLIA is a SQL injection attempt characters and / or keywords in the entrance of a SQL statement to modify the structure of the statement Koopmann (2009) explained that a word of caution with new unseen index function to be attentive to the other indexes created or changed without your knowledge invisible.If you have to watch over SQL index structures which now have to add checking this column visibility or else you will not see the full picture of the indexes that are being maintained by DML but do not contribute to the seleactivity. This could become a nightmare for hidden applications when doing a lot of insertion, updating or deletion. Farooq (2010) reported that The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an Object Management Group. Object-oriented. Modeling information standard. it consists of a set of notations for modeling systems diversity of viewpoints and at different levels of generalization.While the UML reflects some of the best models Object-oriented modeling experiences presented, there is a lack of semantic precision that is essential whether to use the notations to exactly model systems to cause severe and on the models. Zaveri and Hammerstrom (2010) discribed (SQL) Structured Query Language that is used to match the database middleware on these classes and modules database applications are one of the largest domain software and most important in the world. Some of the classes or modules in such applications are responsible for database operations.SQL is used to exchange a few words with the database middleware on these classes or modules. It can be issued interactively or attached to a host language. The objective of this work is expected to software development defects in PL / SQL SQL files using metrics. Based on actual project data desert, The SQL metrics are empirically validated by analyzing its association with the probability of error detection through PL / SQL files. Ruparelia (2010) explained a web application server assistances a standard HTTP web server applications from a standard Web server to perform a vvariety of tasks, such as form processing and database access.The predominant Web application server for the popular open source Apache Web server is PHP (PHP Hypertext Prepprocessor). This document provides an overview of the PHP pprogramming language and its important functionality, including form testing and database access. The paper also discusses campus applications of PHP, including campus service projects, a field of computer science in the development of web applications and student projects. Liu (2010) said it is a popular result premise SQL database that canâ€™t transmit recursive queries, such as skill range; in fact, a new building was added to SQL3 to overcome this limitation.However, the indication of this state is usually given in the form of a reference to the evidence that relational algebra canâ€™t express such queries. SQL, on the other hand, in all its implementations has three aspects that differ fundamentally from relational algebra: namely, grouping, arithmetic operations, and aggregation. Allison (2011) reported that development is an object-oriented analysis and software design approach where system designers assume in terms ofâ€ thingsâ€ instead of operations and variables. This involves designing object classes and relations between these classes.A class module is an â€œideaâ€ that provides a model for the attributes and services that the object is. An object is an occurrence of the class module. Materials and Methods There are many problems in the manual system, because this system of web-based information is entered and also able to know the data is maintained in the computer system. There are many ways through which can be developed software application. All business organizations so that you can easily recover, and the management system database is useful for these tasks. Reduced time consumption by using computerized systems.This is responsible for these tasks. Tabular data will be manipulated by giving orders (Sharifian, et al. 2011). The graphical user interface will be used as the front end, and developed in PHP or ASP. SQL server is used for background design, storage and handling of data. Different reports are generated as required. Data redundancy is removed by the SQL server (Rao and Babu, 2009). The method will be used water fall in the hotel management system. In the waterfall process method includes the identification and selection of projects, project initiation and planning, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance.In the first phase of the information needs of the system will be identified. After the first phase the gantt chart will be developed as a timeline for the determination of the task in the project initiation and planning phase. During analysis phase the investigation will be carried out, including the exchange of ideas on software, which will be going to be and what purpose will be fulfilled. Then, the logical design phase information system will be designed for the user interface. The interface plays an important role in connecting the user with the system.
Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, police departments across the country and throughout the world have begun adopting what is known as proactive policing. This term began as a simple theory which utilized concepts such as community policing and statistical formulas to engage and apprehend criminals before they commit a crime. Police chiefs, county sheriffs, and department heads began to realize that time moved on since the days of the â€œWild Wild Westâ€ and so to have criminals.
Half a century ago, criminals were not as intelligent or as technologically savvy as they are today, namely because of the computer and medical breakthroughs researchers have made. Nowadays, people live longer, have access to healthier foods and dietary supplements, and better education, thereby making it easier for potential criminals to live better lives and develop complex thought-out operations for their next heist.
The law enforcement leaders then recognized the need to find a better way to combat this ever-evolving wave of criminal activities, which eventually lead them to entertain the idea of implementing crime analysis units (CAUs) to assist officers in figuring out where they needed to go to thwart crime before it happens. In order to properly begin a crime analysis unit, one must realize exactly what that unit is, does, will be responsible for, and who they will ultimately answer to. Furthermore, a CAU cannot simply be started by placing a select few in crime analyst positions and expecting them to fulfill the job requirements.
Instead, people who have a high school education, college experience, and strong analytical or math skills should be chosen and given specialized training in the field of crime analysis. So, with that having been stated, what is crime analysis and what can it do for an agency? According to IACA, the International Association of Crime Analysts: Crime analysis is both a profession and a set of techniques. The professionals, who perform crime analysis, and the techniques they use, are dedicated to helping a police department become more effective through better information.
The information that analysts provide can helpâ€¦ olve crimes, develop effective strategies and tactics to prevent future crimes, find and apprehend offenders, prosecute and convict offenders, improve safety and quality of life, optimize internal operations, prioritize patrol and investigation, detect and solve community problems, plan for future resource needs, enact effective policies, and educate the public (What is Crime Analysis, 2011). Now that the basics of what crime analysis CAN do have been identified, the questions that must be asked, according to Intellysis (2013), include:
* Is a crime analysis unit really needed? Whatâ€™s the difference between crime analysis and intelligence analysis? * What kind of crime analysis is neededâ€¦ administrative, strategic, or tactical? * What should the mission or motto be for this unit? * Who will be assigned what tasks? How will work be divided? * How many analysts will be needed? * How do we go about hiring an analyst? What will the job entail and what will be the salary? * What should the workspace be like? * What technology, supplies, and equipment will be needed? * What products will the crime analysts produce? * Where should the crime analysis unit be placed within the organizational chart? Will a policy and procedure manual need to be created? * What type of training will be needed for crime analysts?
All questions listed above are relevant and must be asked if an agency is to have any hopes of implementing a crime analysis unit. To answer the first question of necessity, it is up to the individual municipality and agency head to decide whether or not a crime analysis unit is truly needed. In many small cities and towns, the need for such a unit is slim to none; however, with the ever-increasing rate of criminal activity in small areas, that thought is rapidly becoming obsolete.
The second question, regarding the difference between crime analysis and intelligence analysis, lies in the information that is analyzed. Crime analysis deals with â€˜whatâ€™, â€˜whereâ€™, and â€˜whenâ€™, while intelligence analysis maintains the â€˜whoâ€™, â€˜whyâ€™, and â€˜howâ€™, meaning that crime analysts look at individual M. O. s, crime types, and locations, whereas intelligence analysts deal with why something happened, how it happened, who did it, and how can it be prevented. In addition to this, though, there is a third type known as the crime and intelligence analyst, which is essentially a combination of both.
To figure out what type of crime analyst the agency requires, the history of criminal activity and the needs of the entire department must be reviewed. There are three types of crime analysis â€“ tactical, strategic, and administrative. They are explained here: * Tactical Crime Analysis â€“ primarily functions to promote rapid response to immediate criminal activity. This type of analysis should usually be the primary function performed by crime analysts at the local agency level, although it does somewhat depend upon the specific needs of the individual entity itself.
Tactical crime analysis is the area where trends, patterns, and series are identified and modus operandi is linked with offenders. * Strategic Crime Analysis â€“ deals with everyday operational strategies and formulates solutions for problems arising from those operations. This is sometimes known as the analysis that caters to the command staff and city/county government officials, because it can assist with resource allocation, scheduling, patrol area configuration, and analyzes crime versus staffing demands.
* Administrative Crime Analysis â€“ focuses on long-term activity in a certain area (i. . figuring out why crime is high in a certain area, and what needs to be changed to counteract this). Additionally, providing certain information, such as general crime stats for informational purposes to city hall, neighborhood watch groups, and citizens are a large part of administrative crime analysis (CCAA). Anytime a new group or institution is put into place, one of the first things that must be considered is where that group is going? What will be their primary focus or goal? Mission statements vary across the country, from agency to agency, but a few things remain the same.
In any mission statement for a crime analysis unit, the very first words should read â€œThe overall objectiveâ€ or â€œThe mission of the crime analysis unit,â€ or at least something along those lines. This lets readers know that what is coming next will be what your unit is going to be all about. This is the area where the proposal can be viewed either positively, or pushed aside because the goals do not seem achievable, or they are not seen as highly valuable. Therefore, this statement should be well-organized, attention-grabbing, concise, yet fully inclusive of all major objectives.
Hereâ€™s an example: The mission of the Crime Analysis Unit (CAU) at Make Believe Police Department is to collect, collate, analyze, and prepare criminal / criminal intelligence data to be disseminated to patrol officers and investigators as reinforcement for the proactive policing initiative. The unit will identify emerging crime trends, patterns, and series and make recommendations to the appropriate personnel for prompt response, and potentially link offenders to criminal activity, assisting with bringing said offenders to justice.
The citizens of the City of Make Believe will also benefit from the Crime Analysis Unit, as it will be available to assist the public in the retrieval of crime statistics and information on high-crime areas. When reviewing potential tasks a crime analyst will be responsible for, it is important to note that each agency has different needs; therefore, each agency will need analysts to do different things.
In the same light, it is also up to the individual agency as to how many crime analysts will actually be needed; however, it is recommended by Intellysis that there be at least one analyst per every 100,000 citizens (Starting a Crime Analysis Unit, 2013). On the other hand, the University of South Alabamaâ€™s Center for Public Safety recommends that there should be about one crime analyst for every one-hundred sworn personnel (Oâ€™Shea and Nicholls, 2002, p. 13). At most agencies, hiring requirements for a crime analyst are elevated because it is considered a highly analytical and professional position.
As such, the minimum education and experience usually required for consideration is a Bachelorâ€™s Degree in either criminal justice, criminology, mathematics, or a related field and at least one year of experience as a crime analyst or two years in a related field. In some agencies, the hiring party may consider a candidate who does not have a Bachelorâ€™s Degree, but does have extensive experience in law enforcement, vice versa, or an equivalent combination of both. As far as salary is concerned, this is also up to the individual municipality.
This is something that will be based upon funding, actual necessity, complexity of the work to be performed, and the combined experience/education of the person(s) to be hired. Generally, though, the annual salary of a crime analyst is thought to be between $28,852 and $68,138 with a median income of $39,493 according to Payscaleâ€™s national crime analyst salary website (2013). In most units, crime analysts will be responsible for tactical, strategic, and administrative analysis, as well as completing public requests for assistance.
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